The proportion of salaried women with temporary contracts fell to 20.6% of all female workers in 2022, a year-on-year decrease of 7.2 points driven by the regulatory changes of the labor reform, in force since the last days of 2021.
Temporality is the labor indicator that has improved the most for women in the last year, to which should be added the 46.8% increase in the minimum interprofessional wage (SMI) accumulated since 2019, reaching 1,080 euros gross per month in 14 payments, a more frequent remuneration among employees.
According to the latest Active Population Survey (EPA) of the National Institute of Statistics (INE), female temporary employment fell almost to the same extent as the general indicator, which fell 7.5 points in 2022, to 17.9%.
The Ministry of Labor’s hiring statistics also show a positive evolution, since of the total of 7.85 million new contracts signed throughout 2022 by women, 31.43% were indefinite, a proportion that in 2021 was only 6.67%.
MORE UNEMPLOYMENT, INACTIVITY AND PART-TIME WORK FOR THEM
The improvement in the quality of employment does not prevent the gender labour gap from continuing to be a reality that can be seen, for example, in the female unemployment rate at the end of the year, which stood at 14.6%, while the general rate was almost two points lower (12.87%).
In the same vein, the activity rate – the ratio between the active population and the working-age population – was 53.70% for women, when the male ratio is ten points higher.
While temporary employment or unemployment rates have fallen in the last year – in line with the general improvement in the labour market – the activity rate has hardly changed at all, as it responds to structural factors, as women are the ones who mostly assume care tasks.
In this regard, it should be noted that of the 47,455 family care leaves in 2022, 70.1% were women, according to paternity and maternity leave data offered by Social Security.
As indicated by CCOO in its report “Care without gap. By doing more, we earn less”, in Spain there are about 1.5 million women who do not seek employment because they are dedicated to care at home.
The incidence of partiality is also related to the unequal distribution of care, since of the total part-time contracts at the end of 2022, 73.5% corresponded to women.
According to the union’s above-mentioned report, 22.6% of salaried women work part-time, compared to 6.8% of men.
WAGE GAP AROUND 20 POINTS
The latest data on the pay gap still do not reflect regulatory changes such as the labor reform or the latest increases in the SMI and place the gap at around 20 points, depending on the statistical source.
According to the Women’s Institute, the wage gap stood at 2020.18% in 72, after falling 5.21 points in the last eight years, with an average remuneration for women of 22,467 euros gross per year, compared to 27,642 euros for men.
CCOO places the difference, with data from 2021, at 20.9%, while the union of Technicians of the Gestha Treasury, with data from the Tax Agency, raises it to 25.5%.
The influence of increases in the minimum wage is especially pronounced because, according to the CCOO report, 27.5% of women receive a salary less than or equal to the SMI while, among men, only 11.9% do.
Studies point to salary supplements and unwanted partiality between the causes of the gap, some for rewarding concepts that benefit men more (availability or dangerousness) and another for its greater incidence in women, since if part-time had the same impact between both sexes, the wage gap would be reduced by 60%, says CCOO.